Fundamental Analysis

What Is Fundamental Analysis?

Fundamental analysis (FA) gauges a security’s inborn worth by looking at

related monetary and economic elements. Inherent worth is the worth of a

venture in view of the responsible organization’s monetary circumstance and

current market and financial circumstances.

Fundamental experts concentrate on whatever can influence the security’s

worth, from macroeconomic factors, for example, the condition of the

economy and industry conditions to microeconomic variables like the viability

of the organization’s management.

The ultimate objective is to decide a number that a financial backer can

contrast with a security’s ongoing cost with see whether the security is

underestimated or exaggerated by different financial backers.

Understanding Fundamental Analysis

Fundamental analysis is normally made from a large scale to small scale point

of view to distinguish securities that are not accurately valued by the market.

Analysts commonly study, all together:

The general condition of the economy

The strength of the particular industry

The monetary exhibition of the organization giving the stock

This guarantees they show up at an honest evaluation for the stock.

What Is Utilized?

Fundamental analysis utilizes freely accessible monetary information to assess

the worth of a speculation. The information is recorded on fiscal summaries,

for example, quarterly and yearly reports and filings like the 10-Q (quarterly) or

10-K (yearly). The 8-K is additionally informative on the grounds that public organizations should document it any time a reportable occasion happens,

similar to a acquisition or upper-level management change.

For instance, say that an organization’s stock was trading at $20, and after

broad exploration on the organization, an expert verifies that it should be

valued at $24. Another expert equivalents research however concludes it

ought to be valued at $26.Numerous investors will think about the average of

these assessments and accept that the stock’s characteristic worth might be

close $25. Frequently financial backers consider these evaluations

exceptionally important on the grounds that they need to purchase stocks

trading at costs essentially beneath these characteristic qualities.

This prompts a third significant presumption of fundamental analysis: Over the

long haul, the financial exchange will mirror the fundamentals. The issue is,

nobody knows how long “the long run” truly is. It very well may be days or


This is what’s really fundamental analysis is. By focusing on a specific business,

a financial investor can gauge the natural worth of a firm and track down

chances to purchase at a markdown or sell at a higher cost than normal. The

venture will take care of when the market gets up to speed to the


Fundamental Analysis vs. Technical Analysis

This method of analysis starkly contrasts with technical analysis, which

attempts to forecast price direction through analyzing historical market data

such as price and volume. Technical analysis uses price trends and price action

to create indicators. Some of the indicators create patterns that have names

resembling their shapes, such as the head and shoulders pattern. Others use

trend, support, and resistance lines to demonstrate how traders view

investments and indicate what will happen. Some examples are the

symmetrical triangle or the wedge.

Fundamental analysis relies on financial information reported by the company

whose stock is being analyzed. Ratios and metrics are created using the data

which indicate how a company is performing compared to similar companies.

Understanding Fundamental Vs. Technical Analysis

Quantitative and Qualitative Fundamental Analysis

The problem with defining the word fundamentals is that it can cover anything

related to the economic well-being of a company. They include numbers like

revenue and profit, but they can also include anything from a company’s

market share to the quality of its management.

The various fundamental factors can be grouped into two categories:

quantitative and qualitative. The financial meaning of these terms isn’t much

different from well-known definitions:

Quantitative : information that can be shown using numbers, figures, ratios, or formulas

Qualitative : rather than a quantity of something, it is its quality, standard, or nature

In this context, quantitative fundamentals are hard numbers. They are the

measurable characteristics of a business. That’s why the biggest source of

quantitative data is financial statements. Revenue, profit, assets, and more

can be accurately measured.

The qualitative fundamentals are less tangible. They might include the quality

of a company’s key executives, brand-name recognition, patents,

and proprietary technology.

Neither qualitative nor quantitative analysis is inherently better. Many

analysts consider them together.

Qualitative Fundamentals to Consider

There are four key fundamentals that analysts always consider when

regarding a company. All are qualitative rather than quantitative. They


The Business Model

What exactly does the company do? This isn’t as straightforward as it seems. If

a company’s business model is based on selling fast-food chicken, is it making

its money that way? Or is it just coasting on royalty and franchise fees?

Competitive AdvantageA

company’s long-term success is primarily driven by its ability to maintain a

competitive advantage—and keep it. Powerful competitive advantages, such

as Coca-Cola’s brand name and Microsoft’s domination of the personal

computer operating system, create a moat around a business allowing it to

keep competitors at bay and enjoy growth and profits. When a company can

achieve a competitive advantage, its shareholders can be well rewarded for



Some believe management is the most important criterion for investing in a

company. It makes sense: Even the best business model is doomed if the

company’s leaders fail to execute the plan properly. While it’s hard for retail

investors to meet and truly evaluate managers, you can look at the corporate

website and check the resumes of the top brass and the board members. How

well did they perform in previous jobs? Have they been unloading a lot of

their stock shares lately?

Corporate Governance

Corporate governance describes the policies in place within an organization

denoting the relationships and responsibilities between management,

directors, and stakeholders. These policies are defined and determined in

the company charter, its bylaws, and corporate laws and regulations. You

want to do business with a company that is run ethically, fairly, transparently,

and efficiently. Particularly note whether management respects shareholder

rights and shareholder interests. Make sure their communications to

shareholders are transparent, clear, and understandable. If you don’t get it,

it’s probably because they don’t want you to.


It’s also important to consider a company’s industry: its customer

base, market share among firms, industry-wide growth, competition,

regulation, and business cycles. Learning how the industry works will give an

investor a deeper understanding of a company’s financial health.

Quantitative Fundamentals to Consider: Financial Statements

Financial statements are the medium by which a company discloses

information concerning its financial performance. Followers of fundamental

analysis use quantitative information from financial statements to make investment decisions. The three most important financial statements

are income statements, balance sheets, and cash flow statements.

The Balance Sheet

The balance sheet represents a record of a company’s assets, liabilities, and

equity at a particular point in time. It is called a balance sheet because the

three sections—assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ equity—must balance

using the formula:

Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity

Assets represent the resources the business owns or controls at a given time.

This includes items such as cash, inventory, machinery, and buildings. The

other side of the equation represents the total financing value the company

has used to acquire those assets. Financing comes as a result

of liabilities or equity. Liabilities represent debts or obligations that must be

paid. In contrast, equity represents the total value of money that the owners

have contributed to the business—including retained earnings, which is the

profit left after paying all current obligations, dividends, and taxes.

The Income Statement

While the balance sheet takes a snapshot approach in examining a business,

the income statement measures a company’s performance over a specific

time frame. Technically, you could have a balance sheet for a month or even a

day, but you’ll only see public companies report quarterly and annually. The

income statement presents revenues, expenses, and profit generated from

the business’ operations for that period.

Statement of Cash Flows

The statement of cash flows represents a record of a business’ cash inflows

and outflows over a period of time. Typically, a statement of cash flows

focuses on the following cash-related activities:

Cash from investing (CFI) : Cash used for investing in assets, as well as

the proceeds from the sale of other businesses, equipment, or long

term assets

Cash from financing (CFF) : Cash paid or received from the issuing and borrowing of funds

Operating Cash Flow (OCF) : Cash generated from day-to-day business operations

The cash flow statement is important because it’s challenging for a business to

manipulate its cash situation. There is plenty that aggressive accountants can

do to manipulate earnings, but it’s tough to fake cash in the bank. For this

reason, some investors use the cash flow statement as a more conservative

measure of a company’s performance.

Conclusion – Fundamental analysis relies on using financial ratios drawn from

data on corporate financial statements to make inferences about a company’s

value and prospects.